Outside the EU

Options for Britain

Edited by Martin Westlake

£60.00  |  $90.00
ISBN 9781788213127
£24.99  |  $35.00
ISBN 9781788213134
£24.99  |  $35.00
ISBN 9781788213141
256 pages   |  234 x 156mm   |  06 October 2020


"As the UK still grapples with its real policy choices outside the EU, here is an excellent, timely volume of crisp, well-written essays which cuts through a lot of the fog of confusion, delusion and misinformation in the national debate. The perspectives are genuinely diverse, and come from across the entire European continent – and beyond it. The authors deal with the real trade-offs and dilemmas others outside the EU have faced and the choices they have made when negotiating with it. The history of our relationships with our nearest neighbours and largest trading partners no more ends in 2020 than it started in 1973. This is an excellent primer for how to think about the next chapter." – Sir Ivan Rogers, UK Permanent Representative to the European Union, 2013–17


In the debates about the UK’s future relationship with the European Union, all sorts of possible alternatives have been bandied about, from “Singapore on the Thames” to “Canada Plus”, from “Switzerland” to “Ukraine”, from “Norway” to “Australia”. But what do these alternative relationship models really consist of and would they be viable for the UK?

Martin Westlake brings together distinguished contributors to examine these various options, real and potential, and to consider whether they would offer a workable solution for the continued relationship between the EU and post-Brexit Britain.

These essays offer expert insight into the scale and challenge of the practical issues facing Britain as it seeks to establish a new future with its largest trading partner.


Foreword by Pascal Lamy

Martin Westlake

1. Lessons from the past? The 1954 Association Agreement between the UK and the European Coal and Steel Community
Christopher Lord

2. From the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) to the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Economic Area (EEA) – Portugal’s post-Second World War path
Vasco Cal

3. Norway and the EEA: why the most comprehensive trade agreement ever negotiated is not good enough for the UK
Sebastian Remøy

4. Switzerland: striking hard bargains with soft edges
Georges Baur

5. The Customs Union between Turkey and the European Union
Selim Kuneralp

6. "Ukraine": the Association Agreement Model
Nazar Bobitski

7. Canada and the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA)
Kurt Hübner

8. The WTO Model
L. Alan Winters

9. "Singapore on the Thames"
Alan Bollard

10. The United Kingdom and the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP)
Stephen Woolcock

11. Australia (and New Zealand) after the 1973 "Great Betrayal"
Alexander Downer

12. What Future for the Crown Dependencies, Overseas Territories and Gibraltar?
Alastair Sutton

13. The Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland: a Flexible and Imaginative Solution for the Unique Circumstances on the Island of Ireland?
David Phinnemore

14. EU–UK security relations after Brexit
Gijs de Vries

15. The UK still in Europe? Is the UK’s Membership of the Council of Europe in Doubt?
Martyn Bond

Michael Leigh

Author Information

Martin Westlake is Visiting Professor in Practice at the European Institute, London School of Economics, Visiting Professor at the College of Europe, Bruges, and a research fellow in the Department of International Relations at the London School of Economics. He has worked in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, the Council of Ministers and the European Commission, with the European Parliament, and since 2003, in the European Economic and Social Committee, where he served as Secretary General from 2008 to 2013. He has published widely on European institutions and on European and UK politics, including a major political biography of Neil Kinnock.

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